November 9, 2010

Political Chronology 2009

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8970

2009:January

Gaza

Emergency situation and grave hostilities following conflict between Hamas regime and Israel. Uncertain classification, but likely state of emergency and lack of effective politial activity.

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8971

2009:January

Bangladesh

Civilian and “democratic” government elected and installed. Headed by Sheikh Hasina and Awami League. Following massive election success.

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8972

2009:January

Gaza

“Normalisation” as ceasefire comes in force. Withdrawal of israeli forces.

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8973

2009:February

Zimbabwe

Coalition agreement between MDC and ZANU-PF re-concluded. Unity government expected take office on February 11. Confirmed as Tsvangirai is sworn in. See below

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8974

2009:February

Somalia

 Transitional Parliament expanded to include islamist opposition. Sharif Ahmed elected and installed President, preparing forming of unity government. This will consolidate a interim status. Even though parliamentarian in practise, Somalia will not be considered as such before real elections are held.

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8975

2009:January

Falkland Islands

New constitution for Falkland Islands in force. Transferring authorities from governor to Executive council, thereby ”strengthening democracy”.

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8976

2009:March

Guinea-Bissau

President Vieira killed in military revolt. Successive administration uncertain at this point, rebels or government in control.

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 8977

2009:March

Guinea-Bissau

President of National Assembly,Raismunda Pereira, takes according to constitution over as provisional president of Guinea-Bissau. Fresh elections in 60 days to presidency is called.

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 8978

2009:March

Madagascar

Dramatic revolt by opposition and army forces president Ravalomanana to resign. Opposition leader Rajoelina takes over in provisional government.  Unclear whether this should be seen as a coup or transition to provisional government. Likely Interim stattus, possibly Semi-Revolutionary.

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8979

2009:April

Algeria

Presidential elections in Algeria heavily dominated by incumbent President Bouteflika. Opposition further marginalised, making a transition of status in Algeria from limited democracy to Semi-Authoritarian.

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8980

2009:April

Fiji

President Ilola restores military government following rejecting a verdict from Supreme court, declaring military regime unlawful. Fiji is by this in a form of martial law as government declares themselves above law.

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8981

2009:May

South Africa

Normalisation as Jacob Zuma is elected and installed official President, replacing provisional administration of Mothlanthe.

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8982

2009:May

Ecuador

Normalisation as National Assembly is restored following General election. Replacing constituent assembly. Significant presidential powers remained following constitutional changes.

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8983

2009:May

Niger

President Tandja dissolves parliament following court refusal to stand for new term or try constitutional change in referendum. Due to this the President has assumed strengthen/extraordinary powers, however with some democratic legitimacy.

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8984

2009:June

South Ossetia

Election held to assembly in South Ossetia. As this convenes there will become a partial decentralisation from a status previously with much limited parliamentary control of the executive.

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8985

2009:June (May)

Maldives

Parliamentarian elections concludes The Maldives transition to a genuine democracy. By this both executive and legislature is elected according to democratic standards.

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8986

2009:June

Greenland

Increased Home Rule making Greenland a de facto independent state takes effect on June 21. A newly elected government is to implement the outcome of the referendum late 2008, mandating Greenland with nearly full sovereignity on internal affairs. Foreign and defence matters maintained in danish control.

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8987

2009:June

Gabon

Death of President and dictator Omar Bongo. Provisional government led by Guy Nzouba-Ndama takes office.

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8988

2009:June

Somalia

State of emergency declared by Somali president due to increasing fightings with rebel militia.  De Facto Martial law and ineffective governance.

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8989

2009:June

Niger

President Mammadou Tandja assumes extraordinary and emergency powers as he once more is refused to stand for new term. Virtual absolute power as parliament is dissolved, pending new elections.

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8990

2009:June

Honduras

Coup d’etat. President Manuel Zelaya is deposed by army and supreme court. Following attempt to seek second term in office, and holding of referendum.

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8991

2009:June

Honduras

In constitutional order.The President of congress, Roberto Micheletti assumes office as provisional president of  Honduras.  Greeted by congress and promises planned presidential elections to be held as planned.

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8992

2009:July

Mauritania

Military leader Abdelaziz wins presidential election, paving the way for restored democratic order. Election criticised by opposition as illegitimate, but lacks evidence of fraud. Interim status in force until installation of President. Previous status unclear, since unlawful military leadership possibly ruled with existing legitimate parliament ?

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8993

2009:August

Mauritania

Mohammed Ould Abdelaziz installed as president. Normalisation of democratic system in Mauritania, though disputed by opposition election is considered as generally free and democratic.

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8994

2009:August

Guinea-Bissau

Normalisation. Malam Bacai Sanha installed as democratic president of Guinea-Bissau following elections.

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8995

2009:August

Madagascar

Agreement concluded between Rajoelina and former president Ravalomananina on forminga provisional unity government_____________________________________________________________________________________________________8996

2009:August

Turks and Caicos islands

Self government suspended due to corruption scandal. Governor assumes direct rule.____________________________________________________________________

8997

2009:August

Gabon

Presidential election held, interim status__________________________________________________

8998

2009:September

Canada

Parliament convened, thereby guaranteeing normalisation. Most likely assembled during spring session aswell.________________________________________________________________________________________

8999

2009:September

Gabon

Ali Ben Bongo, son of late Omar Bongo is declared winner of the presidential elections with a support ofnearly 42%. Since the election is conducted from a simple majority form, a run off election betweeen top

candidates will not take place. Ali Ben Bongo installed president

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9000

2009:September

Afghanistan

Possible changed status from democracy to restricted democracy, as presidential elections heldwere criticised and notconsidered  and slightly disputed. Still a democratic order is likely to be functioning

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9001

2009:September

Guinea

 

 

Parliamentary elections planned for early october postponed, due to severe internal hostilities.Planned for march 2010. Status of Guinea may still be changed to martial law/state of emergency.

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9002

2009:October

Niger

Parliamentary elections held, boycotted by opposition and strongly dominating of Tandja-allies.This consolidates a de facto dictatorship in Niger.

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9003

2009:November

Afghanistan

Hamid Karzai reinstalled as president for a second term, after withdrawal of candidacy by opponentAbdullah Abdullah. Invited to form unity government. After all Afghanistan forms a democratic

foundation but with slightly disputed electoral background.

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9004

2009:November

Honduras

Normalisation. Porfirio Lobo elected president of Honduras, replacing provisional governmentof Micheletti. Interim government awaiting installation of Lobo

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9005

2009:November

Jordan

King Abdullah dissolves parliament half-way in time. Legislation suspended until holding of fresh

elections 2010.

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9006

2009:December

Madagascar

Coalition and cooperationagreement abandoned. Following

president Rajoelinas dismissal of coalition prime minister, and appointment of loyal PM.

 End of deal.

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 2009:December

Comoros

Slightly disputed parliamentarian elections held, dominated by party loyal

to president. Thereby making Comoros a limited democracy.

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Gaza: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/7800985.stm

Bangladesh: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/7813632.stm

Bangladesh:

Gaza: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/7835794.stm

Zimbabwe: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/7860161.stm

Somalia: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/7860295.stm

Zimbabwe: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/7882762.stm

Falkland Islands: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/politics/7713948.stm

Guinea-Bissau: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/7918061.stm

Madagascar: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/7948196.stm

Algeria: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/7993671.stm

Fiji: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/7994426.stm

South Africa: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/8018601.stm

Ecuador: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/8019053.stm

Thailand:  http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/8015633.stm (unofficial change)

Niger:     http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/8067831.stm

South Ossetia: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/8076780.stm

Greenland: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/8078639.stm

Gabon: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/8088382.stm

Somalia: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/8113029.stm

Niger: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/8121974.stm

Honduras: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/8123126.stm

Honduras: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/8123513.stm

Mauritania: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/8157851.stm

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